WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Has Scheduled The WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers Paper To Take Place on 17th May, 2024.

WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers

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WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers

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WAEC Literature In English 2024 Paper is Categorized in to 2 parts:

  • WAEC Literature In English Prose 2024
  • WAEC Literature In English Objective 2024

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WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers

WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers

WAEC Literature In English 2024 Questions And Answers








The novel, Second Class Citizen, portrays the quest for equal treatment, self confidence and dignity of women where the Writer conveys the autobiography of Adah Ofili to debunk racial discrimination, gender discrimination, irresponsible husbandhood, early marriage, Patriarchy (male dominance) to convey her literary taxonomies.

The issue in question is the conflict of marriage which will be explicated in the subsequent paragraphs
The conflict of marriage is portrayed in the novel. Here, marriage without love is pivotal in the novel. The marriage between Adah Ofili and Francis is not found on genuine love. Both of them seem to have stuck on each other on basis of conveniences. Adah stuck to Francis because she had no relative kind enough to take her. In short, Adah has no home to call her own.

Another salient conflict in the novel is that even Adah earns most of the family’s money, Francis considers it his. He also beats Adah physically and attack her emotionally. He burns his wife’s manuscript too out of spite and jealousy. In the end, Francis refuses to even take responsibility for his own children.
Marriage in Second Class Citizen is also significant because it involves Adah, the protagonist, Francis, the husband as well as the wider communities in both Nigeria and England. The conflict of marriage is paramount in a patriarchal society where men are superior and women must accept and play their role as inferior partners. Men own and use their women as property. Here, Adah Ofili struggles against the patriarchal notion. Adah is portrayed as a woman who questions the dependent act of men and struggle to free herself. Adah is born into the contest of the conflict of marriage and her personality is shattered by the conflict of marriage.

The determination and optimism that she had expressed in the beginning of the novel has vanished, she is now a ” post colonial entity” because of the conflict of marriage as Francis treated Adah as a domestic animal in the novel
In the final analysis, the conflict of marriage pushes Adah to become a victim of circumstance in a patriarchal society in the hand of Francis that is the most unredeemable villain in African literature, instead of helping Adah to develop the creative potential which she obviously has which she uses to support him. Francis only proves to be an obstacle calling women brainless and Adah’s work rubbish. Francis destroys her manuscript.

In the final act to reclaim her agency, Adah decided to claim divorce from her husband. She suffers various obstacles, but finally abandons him leaving with her four children.


In Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen,” the relationship between Adah and Bill is complex and fraught with tension. Adah, the protagonist, is a Nigerian woman who marries Bill, a British man, and moves to London with him. Throughout the novel, their relationship is marked by power imbalances, cultural differences, and gender expectations.

Bill is portrayed as a controlling and abusive husband who views Adah as inferior to him. He constantly belittles her, restricts her freedom, and is insensitive to her cultural background and desires. Adah, on the other hand, is a resilient and determined woman who struggles to assert her own independence and identity in the face of Bill’s oppressive behavior.

Despite the unequal dynamics in their relationship, Adah remains committed to Bill and tries to make the best of her circumstances. She works hard to support their family financially, takes care of their children, and strives to pursue her own educational and career goals. However, she is constantly undermined and marginalized by Bill, who dismisses her ambitions and treats her as a second-class citizen.

The relationship between Adah and Bill serves as a stark illustration of the challenges faced by women in patriarchal societies and interracial marriages. Adah’s marriage to Bill not only exposes her to the racism and discrimination prevalent in British society but also highlights the gender inequalities and domestic violence that permeate their relationship.

Despite the hardships and mistreatment she endures, Adah refuses to be a passive victim and gradually finds the strength to assert her independence and pursue her own aspirations. Throughout the novel, she navigates the complexities of being a second-class citizen in both her marriage and in society, ultimately showcasing her resilience and determination to carve out a better life for herself and her children.

Over all, the relationship between Adah and Bill in “Second Class Citizen” is a reflection of the broader power dynamics of gender, race, and nationality. It highlights the challenges faced by women like Adah who are caught between their traditional cultural values and the expectations of a patriarchal society. Ultimately, Adah’s journey towards self-empowerment and independence serves as a testament to her resilience and determination in the face of adversity.

In conclusion, the relationship between Adah and Bill in “Second Class Citizen” is characterized by power imbalances, cultural clashes, and gender inequalities. Through Adah’s experiences and struggles, the novel sheds light on the challenges faced by women in oppressive marriages and serves as a poignant exploration of identity, resilience, and empowerment.

The epilogue of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man is a critical component of the novel, providing a profound reflection on the narrator’s journey and its broader implications. In this concluding section, the narrator’s stay in the underground serves as a metaphorical and literal representation of his realization of invisibility and the society’s persistent refusal to see him as an individual.

One significant point in the epilogue is the narrator’s introspective journey. The narrator acknowledges that throughout his life, he has been conforming to the desires and expectations of others, effectively erasing his identity. He states, “I have also been called one thing and then answer while no one really wished to hear what I called myself. So after years of lying to adopt the opinions of others, I finally rebelled. I am an invisible man”. This confession highlights his realization that he has been living a lie, shaped by others’ perceptions and definitions of him. His rebellion against these imposed identities signifies a crucial moment of self-awareness and rejection of societal conformity.

The epilogue also delves into the narrator’s reflections on his grandfather’s last words, which have haunted him throughout the novel. His grandfather’s advice to “overcome ’em with yeses” and to “undermine ’em with grins” has been a source of confusion and contemplation. In the epilogue, the narrator continues to struggle with the meaning of these words, indicating his ongoing quest for understanding and self-definition. This internal conflict underscores the complexity of his journey toward self-realization and the challenges of navigating a society that denies his individuality.

Another critical point in the epilogue is the encounter with Mr. Norton in the subway. Mr. Norton, a key figure from the narrator’s past, fails to recognize him, symbolizing the extent of the narrator’s invisibility. Norton’s escape onto another train leaves the narrator feeling depressed and reinforces his sense of being unseen and unrecognized. This moment encapsulates the broader societal blindness to the individuality and humanity of black people, a central theme of the novel.

The narrator’s purpose in writing his story is also a significant aspect of the epilogue. He muses on the pain and suffering he has endured but refuses to let these experiences define his existence. He approaches life with a complex mix of hate and love, determined to retain his humanity. He expresses a desire to become more human, like his grandfather, who embodies a resilient spirit. This determination to maintain his humanity despite the dehumanizing experiences he has faced is a powerful testament to his strength and resilience.

Finally, the narrator resolves to end his hibernation and re-engage with the world. He states, “I’m shaking off the old skin and I’ll leave it here in the hole. I’m coming out, no less invisible without it, but coming out nevertheless… who knows but that, on the lower frequencies, I speak for you?”. This decision to emerge from his self-imposed isolation signifies a renewed commitment to confront society and assert his identity. The rhetorical question with which he ends the narrative suggests that his experiences and insights may resonate with others who feel similarly unseen and unheard.

The epilogue is significant as it encapsulates the narrator’s journey toward self-awareness and his rejection of societal conformity. Through his introspective reflections, the unresolved questions about his grandfather’s words, the encounter with Mr. Norton, his purpose in writing, and his decision to re-engage with the world, the narrator articulates a powerful message about the struggle for identity and recognition in a society that denies individuality. The epilogue not only provides closure to the narrator’s story but also invites readers to reflect on their own visibility and the societal structures that shape their identities.

The use of blindness as a metaphor in the novel plays a central role in exploring themes of identity, invisibility, and societal indifference. The novel delves into the narrator’s and Tod Clifton’s struggles with conflicting pressures and their uncertainty about their roles in a racially dominated society. This exploration is deeply intertwined with the concept of blindness, which serves as a powerful metaphor for the inability of society to see and acknowledge the true identities and humanity of black individuals.

The narrator’s journey is marked by a search for identity in a society that constantly attempts to define him. As he states at the beginning of the novel, “All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned something tries to tell me what it was.” This quote encapsulates his struggle to find his place and understand himself amidst external pressures and societal expectations. His blackness is a significant part of his identity, but the societal blindness to his individuality and humanity exacerbates his invisibility.

One key example of this metaphor is the narrator’s experience at the Liberty Paint Plant. Initially, he is hopeful that working there will offer him equality and a sense of belonging with the white workers. However, this hope is quickly shattered as he realizes that the plant is merely another setting where his identity is obscured and exploited. This realization marks the beginning of his endless search for identity, highlighting how societal blindness extends beyond race to encompass any system that refuses to see individuals for who they truly are.

The Brotherhood, a political organization that claims to fight racism and inequality, further illustrates the theme of blindness. The narrator initially believes that the Brotherhood will help him find his identity and provide a systematic way of thinking about the world. He embraces their ideology and structures his identity around it, only to discover that the organization is willing to sacrifice him for its own interests. The Brotherhood’s failure to see the narrator as an individual with his own needs and aspirations, instead of just a tool for their cause, underscores the pervasive blindness within even well-intentioned movements.

Tod Clifton’s fate also exemplifies this metaphor. Clifton’s disillusionment with the Brotherhood and his subsequent tragic end demonstrate how societal blindness and betrayal extend to those who seek to challenge or redefine their roles. Clifton’s decision to leave the Brotherhood and his untimely death reflect the harsh reality faced by those who struggle to assert their identities in a society that refuses to see them.

The theme of invisibility is another aspect of this metaphor. The narrator adopts invisibility as a means of expressing himself in a society that is unsafe for black individuals. He is visible only on the surface, but truly invisible to those around him. This invisibility becomes a shield and a means of survival, allowing him to navigate a hostile world. At the beginning of the novel, he tries to explain his invisibility: “I am an invisible man… I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard and distorted glass. When they approach me, they only see my surroundings. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen”. This statement reflects his acceptance of invisibility as a double-edged sword – it provides protection but also perpetuates his marginalization.

The societal blindness to the conditions and identities of black individuals is a critical element of the novel. The white race’s inability to recognize and affirm the humanity of black people renders them “vision-less.” This metaphorical blindness prevents any meaningful recognition or validation of the narrator’s and others’ identities, forcing them into a state of perpetual invisibility. The narrator’s decision to go underground and later resurface signifies his plan to fight back against racial prejudice and cast off his invisibility. His underground retreat symbolizes a period of introspection and preparation for a more assertive and visible existence.

The metaphor of blindness in Invisible Man is integral to understanding the novel’s exploration of identity, invisibility, and societal indifference. It highlights the pervasive inability of society to see and acknowledge the true identities and humanity of black individuals. Through the narrator’s and Clifton’s experiences, Ellison underscores the destructive impact of this blindness and the necessity of confronting and overcoming it to achieve true self-awareness and societal recognition.

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